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Most research on transactional sex frame men as buyers and females as sellers of sex. We conducted a systematic mapping review of the empirical research on transactional sex where women form the demand buyer and men the supply seller. We included 46 studies, of which 25 explicitly researched women as buyers of sex from male sellers, and 21 studies where this topic was a subset of larger topics. While the women appear to be mature and financially independent, the men are young and socioeconomically vulnerable. Condoms are often not used. Transactional sex is generally defined as the trading buying and selling of sex for material benefit, i.
While the instrumentality of the exchange is the linking factor, the boundaries of transactional sex are vague. For example, individuals may occasionally and opportunistically exact a fee or gift for a sexual service without perceiving themselves as someone who trades sex Carael et al. For a discussion of various terms used for selling sex, see e. Carael et al. However, as a type of indirect sex work, the authors acknowledged that men and boys—they name beachboys, bumsters, and Adult women seeking sex Commerce be engaged by women for sexual purposes.
Sterry recounts the circumstances leading up to his situation, characterized by desperation, need for love, and sexual assault. According to reviews, paid male sexual services are largely invisible in the global sex trade, but in growing demand. Indications of a growing market for women who seek paid sexual services with men are not only found online. The entertainment varies by club and location, but most hosts describe it as selling romance, love and sex to their clients Mahdavi, ; Takeyama, To date, it is research on transactional sex that occurs between women as suppliers and men as clients that has been the most visible, while research on transactional sex where women are clients of men who trade sex appears limited and scattered.
This systematic mapping review addresses a research gap in the literature about transactional sex by mapping and synthesizing the empirical research on transactional sex that occurs between men as suppliers and women as buyers, in order to better understand the scope of the current state of research and identify research gaps.
Consolidating the existing research is an important step in the scientific process that extends past research and enables the construction of knowledge that is up-to-date with changing ideas and conceptual frameworks around transactional sex. This research has the potential to challenge common perceptions of the gendered behaviors in the sexual economy, and direct those interested in the subject, particularly in a sociocultural perspective. We conducted a systematic mapping review to consolidate any quantitative and qualitative research.
It differs from a conventional systematic review in that the topic area is usually broader, methodological study quality is not an important issue, and the analysis may be crude need only be fit for purpose Clapton et al. Cochrane specialises in the synthesis of evidence concerning the effectiveness of interventions.
The stages of the data selection process are presented in Figure 1.
The time period was chosen because our knowledge of the subject matter told us that research on this topic is unlikely to exist prior to The piloted, pre-tested search incorporated subject headings e. Additionally, we searched reference lists of relevant reviews, articles and included studies for further relevant references. The complete strategy is available upon request. We stored retrieved references in an Endnote database and deleted duplicate entries.
Figure 1. For each of the two screening levels, we used pre-deed inclusion forms. We resolved differences in opinion in the screening process through re-examination of the study and subsequent discussion. Transactional sex was defined as the trading buying or selling of sex for material benefit Stoebenau et al. Thus, the population in the studies could be men who trade sex to women, and women who trade sex from men, or both.
Unpublished reports, theses, abstracts, brief and preliminary reports, in any language, were considered for inclusion on the same basis Adult women seeking sex Commerce published works. Full texts of studies that were not available in the public domain we attempted to retrieve by contacting the main author.
One reviewer RB extracted data from the included sources using a pre-deed data recording form to enable consistency, and SM checked the extraction. The extraction tool identified general information and study characteristics author, year of publication, country, study de, aim, sample sizepopulation characteristics gender, age, other relevant demographicsand study frequency, motivation, consequences of transactional sex and other characteristics of the transaction.
By keywording Clapton et al. Similarly, we copied the main findings, restricted to instances across the data with relevance to transactional sex, of the qualitative and ethnographic studies in a word document. To classify patterns themes within data, we used manual thematic analysis, as outlined by Braun and Clarke The searches identified 19, individual records, of which were considered potentially relevant Figure 1. We included 46 studies, presented in 54 publications, on transactional sex where women formed the demand buyer and men the supply seller. All were in English. The 46 studies covered a time span of 40 years, from —, although three quarters of the studies were published in the last 15 years Tables 1 and 2.
Table 2. Another 14 studies were on MSM-SW men who have sex with men and sell sex who also had female paying clients. The remaining seven studies concerned diverse populations, but all provided some data on women as buyers of sex from men. We detail the characteristics and the findings of these three of studies below.
There were 25 studies with a main research focus on women as buyers of sex from men. The data were collected over a year time span early s to Common for all 19 studies was that the setting was a coastal town or beach resort, where the sexual exchanges were between white tourist women from rich developed countries North America or Europe and dark-skinned local men from economically underdeveloped countries.
While the tourist women were of various ages but mostly 40 and abovemiddle-class, well educated, and well-traveled, the local men were young late teens to early 30spoorly educated, and from low socioeconomic backgrounds. They were working-class or underemployed with few qualifications, and typically worked in the informal beach economy, exchanging sex part-time.
Relatedly, the sexual exchanges—often occurring within a short period after having met—were typically staged as courtship around heterosexual codes of sexuality, with the men initiating the contact to these short-lived liaisons. Some connections lasted longer, with women continuing as financial provider from their home country see e. Frohlick, For some, it was a short-term subsistence strategy to supplement their meagre incomes and for others to increase long-term economic mobility, including escaping poverty by way of marriage and visa sponsorships.
However, as part of the staged affectionate involvement, the men would underplay the commercial side of the relationship and not directly ask for payment. Rather, at a carefully chosen time, they would insinuate an expectation of gifts or indicate a lack of money, often telling false plight stories or financial responsibilities for relatives. That is, payment for sexual services was generally couched as a gift, donation, sponsorship, or an expression of generosity.
Herold et al. It should be mentioned that regarding the theme of safe sex, several studies found that condoms were not consistently used. The men were often reluctant to use condoms, explaining that it reduced their pleasure, Adult women seeking sex Commerce they would oblige their tourist partner if she insisted on it.
The majority of the studies found that the men had a hierarchy of preferred tourist clients, with the most sought after being Canadian or European women with long straight hair. ATM grandma. Green et al. Three of them De Albuquerque, ; Herold et al.
A prominent theme of the 19 studies about transactional sex between tourist women and local men was the inequalities that underpinned these exchange relationships, not just economic, but also racial, social, political, and structural. This section deals with the six studies that did not involve tourist women Busari et al. Relatedly, another study set in Africa explored the phenomenon of sugar-mommy practices, described as younger men having sexual relationships with older women for material gain.
This qualitative study recruited men and women from the community. The main Adult women seeking sex Commerce was that sugar-mommy practices were becoming increasingly prevalent and acceptable Phaswana-Mafuya et al. The clients self-narrated as self-fulfilled women, who were drawn to the lavishly decorated hostclubs to pursue a fantasy of freedom and escape from their everyday lives.
There were 14 studies about MSM-SW which contained data on women as clients, presumably in their home countries Bowring et al. The sample sizes stated in all studies ranged from 28—, with a total of 3, MSM between the ages of 14—59 average about 23 years.
Additionally, while three studies gave no further related to women clients Estcourt et al. Liu et al. The same appeared to be the case among behaviorally bisexual men in Laos, who in focus group discussions explained that women who paid men for sex were older women Bowring et al. There were three cross-sectional studies on drug-using men. Among Reilly et al. Two studies concerned street-connected male youth.
The first was a cross-sectional study from Canada that investigated survival sex among homeless males age 14— The second study was qualitative, among 45 street-connected males age 11—24 in Kenya. The interviewees explained that it was common for adult women to buy sex from boys Embleton et al. The last study was cross-sectional and included 1, university students in Uganda. This systematic mapping review identified 25 studies that explicitly researched women as buyers of sex from male sellers, and 21 studies where it was a subset of larger topics.
Taken as a whole, this review demonstrates that research on women as sex clients is relatively rare, and the vast majority of studies have focused on the perspective of males as sellers. It also shows that while engaging sexual services from men is likely not a widespread behavior among women, there is a female demand for male sex workers and markets of transactional sex exist to service women.
In our included studies, information about the women who trade sex from men was limited, but they appear to be, relative to the male sellers, older, educated, and economically comfortable. While women appear to mainly engage male sexual services to satisfy their sexual needs, other motivations also seem be at play and will be further discussed below.Adult women seeking sex Commerce
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